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Causes Of Gingival Diseases?


A number of factors can play a role in the development of gingival diseases. Some of them are;

Smoking: Smoking is quite harmful for your dental health. If you don’t care about oral hygiene, this will increase the development of gum diseases.

Stress: Stress is a serious factor in many gum diseases. Many studies have scientifically shown that stress makes it difficult for the body to fight diseases.

Bruxism: It means grinding and clenching of teeth. Stress of teeth may cause the destruction of periodontal tissues.

Malnutrition: Taking the necessary vitamins and minerals is very important for a balanced diet. A balanced nutrition is necessary for the immune system and the cell renewal.

Genetic factors: It is scientifically proven that genetic factors play a crucial role especially in certain periodontal diseases. The risk of periodontal disease increases even more particularly in individuals with poor oral hygiene and genetic predisposition.

Certain Medications: Some medicines such as phenytoin, oral contraceptives (birth control medications), calcium channel blockers may adversely affect oral hygiene.

Pregnancy: Changes in hormones during pregnancy can also cause changes in the gums. Growing gums are common in pregnancies, especially when oral hygiene is not good.

Diabetes: The relationship of diabetes to periodontitis has been accepted by the whole world. Many studies have shown that diabetes is more under control in individuals with healthy gums. It has also been shown that the likelihood of periodontitis is high in individuals whose diabetes is not under control.

What are the periodontology treatments

Periodontology is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the treatment of periodontal disease, which affects the tissues that surround and support the teeth. There are various treatments for periodontal disease, ranging from non-surgical options to surgical procedures. Some of the most common periodontology treatments include:

  1. Scaling and Root Planing: This is a deep cleaning procedure that removes plaque and tartar from the surfaces of the teeth and roots.

  2. Antibiotic Therapy: Antibiotics may be prescribed in cases of severe periodontal infection to help control the spread of bacteria.

  3. Gum Graft Surgery: This procedure is used to replace lost gum tissue, which can be caused by periodontal disease or other factors.

  4. Flap Surgery: This is a more invasive surgical procedure that is used to remove plaque and tartar from deep pockets in the gums.

  5. Soft Tissue Grafts: Soft tissue grafts can be used to replace lost gum tissue and to cover exposed roots.

  6. Bone Grafts: Bone grafts may be used to help restore lost jawbone, which can occur as a result of periodontal disease.

  7. Crown Lengthening: This procedure is used to reshape the gum line and expose more of the tooth, making it easier to place a crown or other restoration.

It's important to note that these treatments can vary depending on the severity and type of periodontal disease being treated, and that the best treatment plan will depend on the individual patient's needs and goals.


Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms of gingivitis include red, tender, swollen and/or bleeding gums. There is inflammation in the gums.


It is a slowly developing gum disease, usually seen in adults. It does not manifest any distinctive symptoms other than a regular gum disease. It is characterized by slow destruction of the tissues (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament) that support the teeth.


It is a rare periodontitis type seen at an early age.  It is characterized by severe bone destruction. It displays a strong genetic influence and shows familial aggregation. Individuals usually lose their teeth by shaking. As there are no obvious complaints until the teeth start to shake, patients do not need to visit a dentist. If you visit your dentist regularly at least once a year, you can protect your teeth before your teeth begin to shake.


Gingival recession is the retraction of the gums towards the teeth roots, leaving the root surface exposed. Receding gums may ocur both becasue of thr malposition of tooth or due to various traumas such as brushing hard and with wrong technique. When the gums are retracted, the primary treatment is to eliminate the cause. In the second stage, operations are carried out to prevent the recession or to cover it if possible. These operations can be easily performed under local anesthesia.


Bleeding while brushing or spontaneously

Sensitivity, pain

Redness, edema

Itching, bad smell, gum recession

Shaky teeth

Surface of teeth roots are exposed


All kind of treatment for gingival diseases begin with scaling and oral hygiene. If the disease is limited only with the gums it is sufficient to clean the teeth and to pay special attention to oral hygiene. During this process, plaques, tartar and stains are usually removed using ultrasonic cleaners and some hand tools. In advanced cases where the disease has caused bone loss, it may be necessary to perform “root planning” flap operations. In some cases it may be possible to obtain partial or complete recovery of the lost bone with products such as bone grafts or enamel matrix proteins applied during these operations. As a result of periodontal treatment, it is important for your dentist to observe the results of the treatments with regular checkups.

If root planning is required, the process can last at least two to six sessions. However in some cases it is also possible to complete treatment in a single long session (approximately 90-120 minutes) for a “Full Mouth Disinfection”.

Smoking and gingival diseases

Although there are no studies showing that smoking is precisely the cause of gum disease, many studies have found that smoking accelerates bone loss in  individuals who have gum diseases.


Gum disease and other diseases

Gum diseases are associated with other health problems such as diabetes, low birth weight and various lung diseases. Many studies have shown that especially in people with diabetes, periodontitis is quite common.


Toothpaste Selection

You can use any toothpaste as long as your dentist does not recommend a specific one.


Does periodontal treatment cause pain?

During the treatment procedure, you will not feel any pain as you will have local anesthesia. Some operations may cause temporary tingling. The reason for this is the removal of tartar from surfaces of your teeth roots that occur due to gingival recessions.


Check-up after treatment?

You will usually be called up at 4, 6 or 12 months to check up, but your dentist may suggest a different checkup schedule depending on your situation.


Does dental scaling cause tooth erosion?

Dental scaling does not cause tooth erosion because only tartar, plaques and dirt accumulated on the surface of your teeth are cleaned.